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2022-06-26 [19529]
本文摘要:Myth 1: Your fingerprints are completely unique误会一:你的指纹是独一无二的For more than a century, fingerprints have played a major role in forensic investigations. It all started with Scottish scientist and physician Henry Faulds who, in 1888, wrote an article asserting that each person has a wholly unique set of fingerprints.一个多新世纪至今,指纹依然在法医鉴定中充分运用着巨大的具有。

Myth 1: Your fingerprints are completely unique误会一:你的指纹是独一无二的For more than a century, fingerprints have played a major role in forensic investigations. It all started with Scottish scientist and physician Henry Faulds who, in 1888, wrote an article asserting that each person has a wholly unique set of fingerprints.一个多新世纪至今,指纹依然在法医鉴定中充分运用着巨大的具有。指纹说源起于英国生物学家和医师伯特?福尔兹1888年写成的一篇毕业论文,毕业论文中宣称每一个人都是有独一无二的指纹。Now, a single print in the wrong place can be enough for a criminal conviction. However, we have no way to conclusively prove that each of our collections of whorls, loops, and arches is unique (short of gathering the prints of every person who ever lived and comparing them).如今,在不正确的地区交给一个指纹就不能判罪。可是,大家还没法最终证实大家所收集到的各种各样指纹(斗型纹、箕型纹、弓型纹)全是独一无二的,更为别说收集和比较这些早就去世的人的指纹了。


Its impossible to prove that no two are the same, Mike Silverman, a forensic science regulator in the United Kingdom, told The Telegraph. Its improbable, but so is winning the lottery, and people do that every week.“没2个指纹基本上一样,这事不上证实,”美国法医鉴定管控组织高官乔治?塞达弗曼对他说《每日电讯报》讲到,“基础不有可能,但就和购买彩票一样,虽然告知彻底沒有有可能得奖,但也有人每星期都购买彩票。”There can be serious consequences if most people believe that fingerprint analysis is infallible. In 2005, Simon Cole, a criminologist at the University of California at Irvine, published a study detailing the 22 known cases of fingerprint mistakes in the history of the American legal system.假如大部分人都确信指纹检测意味著会不正确,很有可能会带来相当严重的不良影响。

二零零五年,加州大学凯里欧文校区的刑事案件学者西蒙?科尔发布了一项调查报告,列出了英国司法制度建立至今不明的22个指纹检测导致的不正确。He stressed the need to address this misconception lest more innocent people find themselves accused, or even convicted, of crimes they did not commit.他着重强调了清扫这一误会的重要性,以防更为多无辜的人由于指纹起诉,乃至判罪。Myth 2: Rolling your tongue is a genetic trait误会二:不容易卷舌头是遗传基因规定的In 1940, geneticist Alfred Sturtevant published a paper claiming that genetics determined your ability to roll your tongue - parents who could roll their tongues were likely to have children who could as well.1940年,遗传学家阿尔弗雷德?斯特蒂文特公布发布了一篇毕业论文,宣称遗传基因规定了你可否卷舌头——能卷舌头的父母不容易成长为能卷舌头的儿女。

Just 12 years later, geneticist Philip Matlock disproved this finding with a study of his own. When he compared 33 sets of identical twins, he found that seven of those pairs contained one twin that could roll his or her tongue but the other couldnt.才过去了十二年,遗传基因学者菲利浦?马特洛克就用自身的科学研究篡权了这一寻找。马特洛克比较33对同卵双胞胎后寻找,在其中有7对双胞胎宝宝一个不容易卷舌头,另一个会。

Since the genes of identical twins are the same, genes clearly werent the deciding factor for tongue rolling. Still, the misconception persists 65 years after Matlock published his debunking study.即然同卵双胞胎的遗传基因是完全一致的,遗传基因好像并不是可否卷舌头的决策要素。即便如此,在马特洛克公布发布了此项颠覆性创新科学研究65年以后,仍有些人持有者这类误会。And though its not life-threatening, that misunderstanding can cause unnecessary stress. As evolutionary biologist John McDonald told PBS, hes received emails from children concerned that they arent related to their parents because they dont share the ability.虽然这类误会会严重危害性命,但還是不容易带来多余的工作压力。演变科学家罗伯特?麦克唐纳对他说英国公共广播系统企业讲到,他曾收到小孩写来的电子邮箱,写信的小孩忧虑自身并不是父母亲生父母子的,由于父母(自身)不容易卷舌头而自身(父母)会。

Myth 3: You have five senses误会三:人会有五种感官Children often learn that they have five senses - sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. Thats a fact that originated in a work by the Greek philosopher Aristotle, written around 350 BC.一般来说小朋友们来教的科技知识是,人会有五种感官——视觉效果、英语听力、味蕾、触感和味觉。这一“客观事实”源于希腊哲学家亚里士多德于公元350年上下写成的一部著作。However, you actually have more than five senses. Way more. In fact, scientists arent even sure just how many more - estimates range from 22 to 33. Some of those other senses include equilibrioception (sense of balance), thermoception (sense of temperature), nociception (sense of pain), and kinaesthesia (sense of movement).殊不知,本质上,人的感官如同五种,只是比五种很少。


While none of these additional senses include the ability to communicate with the dead, some are absolutely essential for life. For example, our sense of thirst helps our bodies maintain appropriate hydration levels, and people who lack that sense - a rare condition called adipsia - can become severely dehydrated or even die.虽然别的的这种感官不还包含和行凶沟通交流的工作能力,但一些感官对生存尤为重要。例如,大家的口干觉得能帮助人体维持必需的水份,没口干觉得的人——这类罕见的病叫渴觉得注意力不集中症状——很有可能会相当严重水解反应乃至想起。


Myth 4: Fingernails and hair continue to grow after death误会四:手指甲和秀发在人死之后还不容易以后生长发育Our bodies do lots of creepy things after we die, but they dont keep growing our fingernails and hair. To do that, our bodies need to produce new cells - something that simply isnt possible after death.我的身体在大家人死之后还不容易保证许多令人不寒而栗的事儿,但大家的手指甲和秀发在人死之后并会以后生长发育。假如要以后生长发育,身体务必生产制造新的体细胞,而这在人死之后是显而易见不有可能再次出现的。This morbid misconception dates back until at least 1929 when writer Erich Remarque immortalised it in his novel All Quiet on the Western Front. In fact, his misunderstanding is due to an optical illusion.这类心理扭曲的误会要上溯至少1929年,那时候文学家埃里希?雷马克在他的小说集《西线无战事》中让这类意识深得人心。

实际上,雷马克的误会源于电子光学幻觉。While our nails and hair dont continue to grow after we breathe our final breath, our skin does shrink as it becomes dehydrated. As the skin retracts, our nails and hair become more exposed, and, thus, they may appear to grow.在大家咽气后,大家的手指甲和秀发并会以后生长发育,但大家的肌肤不容易由于水解反应而澎涨。肌肤澎涨后,大家的手指甲和秀发不容易能够更好地 裸露独自一人,因而他们看上去就模样以后生长发育了。

Luckily, getting this one wrong isnt likely to cause much harm - beyond its potential to give children nightmares or exacerbate a persons thanatophobia, of course.碰巧的是,这一误会会造成 过度多伤害——除开让小孩噩梦惊醒,或恶化大家的丧命恐惧。Myth 5: You should never wake a sleepwalker误会五:你意味著没法睡觉一个梦游的人Though about 7 percent of the population will sleepwalk at some point in their lives, no one knows for sure what causes somnambulism. What to do should you encounter a slumbering pedestrian is also a source of confusion thanks to a very old misconception.虽然全世界约7%的人口不容易在人生道路的某一阶段梦游,但没人告知是怎么回事导致了梦游症。

更是由于这一历史悠久的误会,大家分不清在碰到一个已经梦游的路人时到底理应如何做。Mark Pressman, a psychologist and sleep specialist at Lankenau Hospital in Pennsylvania, told Live Science the belief that its dangerous to wake a sleepwalker began in ancient times when people used to think your soul left your body while you slept.英国宾夕法尼亚州蓝科纳医院门诊睡眠质量中权威专家、心理学专家马可?普雷斯曼对他说日常生活科学网站讲到,强调睡觉梦游者很危险因素的意识来源于于古时候,古代人强调在你睡的情况下,你的生命不会离开了你的人体。Waking a sleepwalker, therefore, would doom the sleeper to a soulless existence. The supposed consequences of waking a sleepwalker have since evolved - some say you could induce a heart attack, or send the sleeper into a permanent state of insanity.因而,睡觉梦游者不容易让其变成没生命的人。之后,睡觉梦游者的不良影响就演变为引发心脏疾病或让梦游者此后发疯。

While Pressman said waking a sleepwalker wont harm them, it might not be easy to do. Letting a sleepwalkers journey continue uninterrupted is clearly not an option since it could have devastating consequences - sleepwalkers have been known to injure themselves or even die in their zombie-like state.虽然普雷斯曼讲到睡觉梦游者并会危害她们,但睡觉她们有可能并不更非常容易。让梦游者的旅程也不受阻拦地坚持下去好像权宜之计,由于有可能造成毁灭性的不良影响——曾有梦游者在梦游中途伤情,乃至有些人在丧尸一样的情况中病亡。The best course of action, therefore, is to simply guide a sleepwalker back to bed.因而,最烂的处理方法便是推动梦游者回到床边。Myth 6: Swallowed chewing gum takes seven years to digest误会六:吃进腹部的口香糖要花上七年時间才可以消化吸收丢掉If you believe the legend, gum you swallowed years ago is still in your body; your digestive tract is still working on the chewy mass. While its impossible to pinpoint the origin of that myth, debunking it is fairly easy.假如你确信这一传闻,那麼你两年前吐出来的口香糖仍然在你的身体;你的消化系统仍然在处理这方面物品。

虽然这一传闻的发源不明,可是揭穿它還是十分更非常容易的。Gum is chewy because it contains a synthetic rubber base that simply isnt digestible. But that doesnt mean swallowed gum cant complete the journey through your digestive tract.口香糖很耐高温咬合是由于它所含一种不可以消化吸收的丁苯橡胶。但这并不意味著口香糖没法顺利完成消化系统的这一段旅途。

As Rodger Liddle, a gastroenterologist at the Duke University School of Medicine, told Scientific American, the human body is capable of passing objects up to roughly the size of a quarter, so a single piece of gum should pose no problem.康涅狄格大学医科院的胃肠病学家萨波?利德尔对他说《科学美国人》杂志期刊讲到,人体内能够根据一个25美分钱币尺寸的物件,因此 一块口香糖理应会造成 什么问题。If you were to swallow several pieces of chewing gum in a short amount of time, though, you could end up with a mass too large to pass. At that point, you may need to call on a doctor to remove it manually - in 1998, pediatric gastroenterologist David Milov published a study noting three such cases in children, and the ordeal does not seem pleasant.殊不知,假如你一直在短期内内吐出来几片口香糖,那么块状理应没法根据消化系统。如果是那样,你也许务必让医师手动式除去。一九九八年,小孩肠病学权威专家彼得?米罗夫公布发布了一份调查报告,在其中列出了三个那样的少年儿童病案,并且除去口香糖的全过程也许并难受。