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2022-07-22 [72269]
本文摘要:Nature boasts some nifty technology. A leaf is one such miraculous machine, able to turn one form of energy into another: it takes in carbon dioxide, plus water, and uses sunlight to convert it all into carbohydrates.大自然界具有一些难以置信的高新科技。


Nature boasts some nifty technology. A leaf is one such miraculous machine, able to turn one form of energy into another: it takes in carbon dioxide, plus water, and uses sunlight to convert it all into carbohydrates.大自然界具有一些难以置信的高新科技。叶子便是能将一种方式的能量转化变成另一种的神密设备:叶子汲取二氧化碳和水份,并利用太阳将其转换变成糖分。For years, scientists have tried to emulate the process of photosynthesis. Finally, those efforts are blooming. The magazine Scientific American, together with experts from the World Economic Forum, has named the artificial leaf one of the breakthrough technologies of 2017.很多年来,专家依然妄图效仿光合作用。这种期待再一拥有成效。

《科学美国人》(Scientific American)杂志期刊与全球金融峰会(WEF)的权威专家们将人工叶子选为17年的开创性技术性之一。Laboratory-based efforts are attempting to go one better on nature by generating not plant food but fuels that can be stored for later use. Such projects offer the promise of making new forms of energy while mopping up carbon dioxide, an unwanted greenhouse gas, from the atmosphere. That makes artificial photosynthesis one of the potentially cleanest technologies on the energy horizon.试验室科学研究工作人员正在尝试比自然界更胜一筹:并不是溶解绿色植物营养物质,只是造成必须储存起来可供之后用以的然料。这类新项目带来了一种市场前景:在生产制造新型能源的另外,从地球大气层吸出来二氧化碳这类不受欢迎的空气污染物。这使人工光合作用将来可能沦落电力能源行业最洗手消毒的技术性之一。

Daniel Nocera and Pamela Silver, from Harvard University, have taken early steps along this road. Their system — the “leaf” is actually a container — uses a catalyst, activated by sunlight, to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen molecules. The container is home to hydrogen-eating bacteria, which feast on the newly liberated molecules plus carbon dioxide to churn out liquid fuel.美国哈佛大学(Harvard University)的丹尼尔?诺切拉(Daniel Nocera)和帕梅拉?塞达弗(Pamela Silver)是这一条路面上的先驱者。她们的系统软件,也就是说“叶子”,本质上是一个器皿,该系统软件利用一种由太阳基因表达的金属催化剂,把水分转化成氢分子和氧原子。这一器皿中有以氢为食的病菌,这种病菌摧毁新的释放出的氢分子,再次再加二氧化碳,来总产量固体燃料。While even the fastest-growing plants manage to convert about 1 per cent of sunlight into food, the Harvard scientists managed an efficiency of 10 per cent when using pure carbon dioxide. The efficiency drops to about 4 per cent when pulling carbon dioxide from the air.即便是生长发育比较慢的绿色植物,也不可以将约1%的太阳转换变成营养物质,而美国哈佛大学的这俩位生物学家产品研发的系统软件在利用显二氧化碳时,超出了10%的能量转化成高效率。

但是,假如从空气中获取二氧化碳,高效率就不容易升高至约4%。The sun is shining for solar fuels more widely. The US Department of Energy runs a specialist hub, the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, that brings together a host of academic institutions such as Caltech and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.也有别的一些人到进行利用太阳生产制造太阳能发电然料的科学研究。

美国能源部(US Department of Energy)集团旗下有一个专业进行这些方面科学研究的中心——人工光合作用带头中心(Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis),聚集了加利福尼亚州理工大学(Caltech)和劳伦斯伯克利国家级实验室(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)等一批学术研究组织。Its mission is to develop a scalable technology that converts carbon dioxide, water and sunlight into renewable transportation fuels (even in a green future, trucks, planes and ships can’t be plugged into the grid while on the go). There are also a number of start-ups dedicated to transforming light energy into a storable, chemical alter ego; MIT Technology Review lists Opus12, Liquid Light, Joule Unlimited and LanzaTech. One challenge, among many, is to find cheap and plentiful catalysts; some techniques use platinum.该中心的每日任务是产品研发一项能够规模性运用于的技术性,将二氧化碳、水和太阳转换变成能再生的运送用然料(即便在一个翠绿色将来,货车、飞机场和船只都不有可能挂着电缆线经营)。

也有好几家新成立公司着眼于将能源转换变成可存的机械能;《麻省理工科技评论》(MIT Technology Review)列举了Opus12、Liquid Light、Joule Unlimited和LanzaTech。在其中一个挑戰是,找寻便宜和取之不竭的金属催化剂;现阶段一些技术性用以铂做为金属催化剂。The excitement over artificial photosynthesis stems from its potential to create “dispatchable” renewable fuels, which can be stored and used when needed. In contrast, wind turbines and solar panels generate energy intermittently. That hurdle has hampered the bid to put renewables more firmly into the energy mix: one estimate, from the Cambridge University Science and Policy Exchange, contends that replacing the power supply of one coal-fired power station requires solar or wind substitutes to produce four times the output.人工光合作用往往振奋人心,是由于它有可能生产制造出有必须存储并在务必时用以的“可激发的”可再生资源。

与此组成独特的是,风能发电机和太阳能发电太阳能电池板不可以时断时续地造成动能。这个问题防碍了使可再生资源沦落能源结构中更为可靠构成部分的期待:牛津大学科学研究和现行政策沟通交流中心(Cambridge University Science and Policy Exchange)进行的度量强调,假如要用太阳能发电或风能发电来更换一座火电站的能源供应,前面一种的年发电量要超出后面一种的4倍。There is another bonus to solar fuels: they need no infrastructure. They can be whisked to even the remotest rural locations, with obvious implications for the developing world. Those advocating more public support of the technology point out it can be deployed quickly in places such as refugee camps and isolated villages undergoing disease outbreaks. For those reasons, Bill Gates declared himself an aficionado of the concept earlier this year. In March, he blogged: “I’ve written before about the need for an energy miracle to halt climate change and provide access to electricity to millions of the poorest families who live without it. Making solar fuel would be one of those miracles.” Mr Gates, among others, founded breakthrough energy ventures to invest $1bn in clean energy.太阳能发电然料还有一个好处:不务必基础设施建设。他们能够被迅速送至最偏远的乡村地域,这对发达国家而言好像实际意义全局性。

督促群众扩大抵制这类技术性的人员觉得,这类技术性能够比较慢布署在难民营、肺炎疫情越来越激烈的孤村等地区。出自于这种原因,比尔?伯纳斯(Bill Gates)在2020年 稍早宣称,他自己对这一定义心系心驰神往。他在三月发布博闻称作:“我以前曾发文讲到过,大家务必一个能源惊喜来抵制气候问题,另外让数以百计现阶段仍未接电源的最困难家庭用通电。


Artificial photosynthesis will also appeal to another class of consumer: those living off-grid. By 2035, Accenture estimates, 12 per cent of people in North America and 11 per cent in Europe will be energy self-sufficient and potentially living off-grid.人工植物光合作用还将更有另一个顾客人群:过着“脱网”生活的人。埃森哲(Accenture)估计,到2035年,北美地区12%的人和欧州11%的人将搭建能源是是非非,很有可能会分裂电力网。Tesla has already anticipated the trend: the company’s Powerwall battery is designed to store solar power generated during the day so that it can be used at night, and is targeted at the same market. Indeed, a whole movement has sprung up around eco-living, with multiple books and websites offering blueprints for off-grid utopias, often powered by wood-chopping.特斯拉汽车(Tesla)早就预测分析来到这类发展趋势:该企业的Powerwall充电电池必须在大白天存储太阳能发电电力工程,便于在晚间用以,该商品枪击同一个销售市场。


本质上,围绕着绿色生态生活引起了一阵的浪潮,很多书本和网址描绘了脱网生活的乌邦托宏伟蓝图,方式通常是劈柴。This has inspired talk of a “death spiral” in the utilities industry: as renewables become cheaper, and with a huge infrastructure being serviced by a decreasing pool of customers, more will go off-grid. Enthusiasm for artificial photosynthesis, as with other renewables, is fuelled by green concerns too — and how fabulously post-modern that the cleanest way of going back to nature might be to fake it.这造成了相关公共事业“丧命螺旋式”的争辩:伴随着可再生能源看起来更为便宜,伴随着更为小的顾客群要烘托起丰厚的基础设施建设,更为多的人将随意选择“脱网”。对人工植物光合作用甚至别的可再生能源的激情,还遭受大家对自然环境忧虑的助力——要走进自然,最洗手消毒的方法有可能是效仿自然界,它是多么的诗情画意的后现代主义啊。